FAQwithCategory


FAQ’S



        FAQs on EP STUDY

        • What is an electrophysiology study?
        • Who will perform electrophysiology study?
        • Who will perform electrophysiology study?
        • Who needs to consult electrophysiologist?
        • Who needs an Electrophysiology Study?
        • What are the advance treatment options are available for heart rhythm disorder?
        What is an electrophysiology study?

        Electrophysiology study is a specialized procedure conducted by a trained cardiac specialist, the Electrophysiologist to diagnose the cause and source of cardiac rhythm disorder [Fast / slow heart beat]

        Who will perform electrophysiology study?

        A cardiac electrophysiologist, who is an interventional cardiologist with an advanced training in the diagnosis and treatment of heart rhythm problems, performs the Electrophysiology study

        Who will perform electrophysiology study?

        A cardiac electrophysiologist, who is an interventional cardiologist with an advanced training in the diagnosis and treatment of heart rhythm problems, performs the Electrophysiology study

        Who needs to consult electrophysiologist?

        When most people have a heart condition they automatically assume they need to see a cardiologist. However, cardiologists do not specialize in treating every issue related to the heart.

        Electrophysiologists treat heart rhythm disorder which includes irregular heartbeats, fast heart beats [Palpitation] and slow hear beats.

        Electrophysiologist evaluates and implants pacemakers and heart failure devices. Also performs electrophysiology study and Radiofrequency catheter Ablation procedures for tachyarrhythmia’s [fast heart beats]

        Who needs an Electrophysiology Study?

        Patients with documented arrhythmia or symptoms like recurrent palpitation suggestive of arrhythmia can undergo EP study for better diagnosis and treatment options.

        Patient who has repeated loss of consciousness with an unknown etiology also can undergo electrophysiology study to assess the electrical conduction system of the heart.

        What are the advance treatment options are available for heart rhythm disorder?

        Some people with irregular heart rhythms (arrhythmias), medication alone may be enough to restore a normal heart rhythm. However, many patients with arrhythmias require more advanced treatment.

        An electrophysiology study (EPS) is usually performed to diagnose the cause of the irregular heart rhythm. During the EP study or immediately after, an electrophysiologist may also perform a procedure to treat the arrhythmia.

        Advanced treatment procedures include:

        • Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation [RFA]
        • Pacemaker implantation
        • Automatic Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD)



        FAQs on 3D – MAPPING

        • What is 3D mapping?
        What is 3D mapping?

        Three dimensional electrical as well as anatomical reconstruction of cardiac chamber is useful to identify the mechanism and the site of origin of arrhythmia. CARTO 3, the latest 3D mapping system uses magnetic technology with current based data which increases the accuracy in localizing the site of arrhythmia origin and delivering RF energy. 3D mapping system increase the success rate of complex arrhythmia ablations like Atrial tachycardia, Atrial Flutter, Atrial Fibrillation and Ventricular Tachycardia.


        FAQs on PACEMAKERS

        • How long should a pacemaker last?
        • Can Home Appliances damage /interfere with my pacemaker?
        • Can I use hand held electric Gardening Tools?
        • Can I carry out repairs on motor vehicle engines?
        • Can I return to my previous occupation after having a pacemaker fitted?
        • Can security equipment in Airports and Shop entrance damage or interfere with my pacemaker?
        How long should a pacemaker last?

        Pacemaker batteries usually do not stop suddenly. One of the purposes of your follow up care is to monitor the battery status. Your pacemaker will give ample warning that the battery is reaching depletion. At this time your doctor will schedule a replacement procedure.

        In general pacemakers last anywhere between 8 to 10 years. Pacemaker longevity depends upon how hard the battery inside the pulse generator has to work. This in turn is affected by how much energy is required to pace your heart and how the system is programmed for your needs.

        Can Home Appliances damage /interfere with my pacemaker?

        Using properly operating household appliances such as microwave ovens, electric blankets and most power tools cannot damage your pacemaker.

        Using electric arc welders or working on automobile ignition systems will also not damage your pacemaker, however there is a possibility that they may interfere with the proper operation of your pacemaker. If you are using any of these or similar devices and become light headed or feel palpitations simply turn the device off or walk away from it and normal pacemaker operation should resume.

        MEDICAL OR SURGICAL TREATMENT
        If you are having any type of medical procedure performed, let your physician, dentist, chiropractor, physiotherapist  or any health or cosmetic care provider know that you have a pacemaker. They will then be able to determine which diagnostic or therapeutic equipment is appropriate to use.

        The following items do not affect the function of your pacemaker.
        Acceptable:

        • Electric blankets, heating pads and portable space heaters.
        • Hand held items without an AC motor such as cordless electric knives, irons and newer cordless shavers.
        • Large appliances including washers, dryers and electric stoves.
        • Ovens, including microwaves, gas and electric.
        • Salon hair dryers.
        • Tabletop appliances such as toasters, blenders, electric can openers and food processors.
        • Televisions, FM and AM radios, video cassette recorders (VCRs), video games, compact disc players, stereos (other than speakers), desktop and laptop computers.
        • Treadmills
        • Vacuum cleaners and electric brooms.

        The following items do affect the function of your pacemaker in close proximity.

        You must not be too close to these appliances; more than 6 inches away

        • The following items can be used when they are kept 6 inches away from your pacemaker (it is usually the motor that may cause an electromagnetic field). If you experience dizziness and palpitations simply move further away from the item. Your pacemaker will then operate properly.
        • Hand held hair dryers and older shavers with an electrical cord.
        • Pagers
        • Sewing machines and servers (sewing machines that overcast edges to prevent fraying)
        • Electric toothbrush and the base charger of an ultrasonic toothbrush.
        • Large stereo speakers which often have large magnets. Do not lift large stereo speakers close to your pacemaker.

        You must be at least 2 feet away from these appliances.

        When using an induction range for cooking keep your pacemaker 2 feet from the range to prevent EMI.

        Can I use hand held electric Gardening Tools?

        Yes.
        It is safe to use electric gardening tools. Included are the following tools:

        • Electric hedge clippers
        • Leaf blowers
        • Lawn mowers

        Snow blowers

        Can I carry out repairs on motor vehicle engines?

        MOTOR VEHICLE REPAIR

        Acceptable with precautions

        • Gas powered tools. Turn off the engine before making adjustments.
        • Car engine repair. Use caution when near the coil, distributor or spark plug cables of a running engine. Turn off the engine before making any adjustments to the distributor.
        • Soldering guns and demagnetisers. Keep 6 inches away from your pacemaker.

        CONTRAINDICATIONS WITH PACEMAKERS

        Not recommended:

        Avoid using a power tool locked in the on position. This would prevent you from quickly turning off the equipment.

        Avoid using a gas-powered chain saw. This is recommended because your hands and body come into close contact with the electric spark generating components/ these components could interact with your pacemaker.

        Can I return to my previous occupation after having a pacemaker fitted?

        Workplace Guidelines

        After recovering from surgery most pacemaker patients can return to work or school. This section offers precautions and guidelines about using or working near various kinds of equipment or sources of high electrical current.

        Office based employment.

        Acceptable:

        Most office equipment is safe to use with your pacemaker. This includes the following items and other similar equipment.

        • Computers such as desktop, laptop and mainframe
        • Copy machines
        • Electric typewriters
        • Fax machines
        • Modems
        • Printers such as laser or dot matrix.
        Can security equipment in Airports and Shop entrance damage or interfere with my pacemaker?

        Travel and Security System Guidelines in Airports and Shops:

        Most people with pacemakers can travel without taking special precautions. However certain security systems require a few instructions.

        Acceptable

        The following devices do not affect your pacemaker. However you may wish to know about these devices before you encounter them.

        • A car seat belt may feel uncomfortable. On newer model cars the seat belts can be arranged for your comfort. Placing a soft towel between the seat belt and the pacemaker during the first few weeks after surgery may cushion the area. In any case seatbelts should be worn at all times.
        • Airport security systems. Identify yourself as having a pacemaker. Your pacemaker will not be affected by the security system. However the metal case around your pacemaker could set off the alarm. To clear airport security show your pacemaker ID card. Request a hand held screening device to clear you through the security system.
        • Home security systems. It is unlikely that your pacemaker will set off or be affected by home security systems.

        Acceptable with precaution

        • Retail and library security systems. To prevent the effects of these systems on your pacemaker just walk normally through them. Do not linger or lean against these detectors. It is unlikely that your pacemaker will set off retail or library security systems however you should always carry your ID card. This card is always helpful should your pacemaker set off a metal detector or security system.

        Other electrical devices. Do not stand close to any electrical device if you suspect it is causing a problem with your pacemaker.

        FAQs on ABLATION

        • What is RF Ablation?
        • When do you require Radio frequency ablation?
        • Why do you need catheter ablation?
        • What are the common arrhythmias treated with RF ablation?
        What is RF Ablation?

        Catheter ablation is a procedure that uses radio frequency energy to destroy a small area of heart tissue that is causing rapid and irregular heartbeats. Destroying this tissue helps restore your heart’s regular rhythm. The procedure is also called radio frequency ablation [RFA]

        When do you require Radio frequency ablation?

        Special cells in your heart create electrical signals that travel along pathways to the chambers of your heart. These signals make the hearts upper and lower chambers beat in the proper sequence. Abnormal cells may create disorganized electrical signals that cause irregular or rapid heartbeats called arrhythmias. When this happens, your heart may not pump blood effectively and you may feel faint, shortness of breath and weak. You may also feel your heart pounding.

        Catheter ablation procedure is done to treat the conditions which can cause tachyarrhythmias like Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia [PSVT], atrial flutter, atrial fibrillation and ventricular arrhythmias.

        Why do you need catheter ablation?

        Quality of Care: Most Cardiac Arrhythmias can be treated and cured by Catheter Ablation thereby eliminating the need for life-long therapy.

        Quality of Life: Catheter Ablation can restore the quality of life of the patient leading to a happier family life and improved productivity at workplace.

        Save Lives: Some life-threatening Ventricular Arrhythmias can be successfully treated with Catheter Ablation there by providing patients with an option to live.

         Cost of Care: The overall lifecycle costs of care for the patient may be reduced due the curative nature of Catheter Ablation therapy.

        What are the common arrhythmias treated with RF ablation?
        1. Supraventricular Tachycardia – Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT) generally describes the rapid beating of the heart originating from upper chambers. Most common forms of SVT include Atrioventricular Node Reentry (AVNRT), Atrioventricular Reentry (AVRT) and Focal Atrial Tachycardia.
        2. Atrial Flutter– Atrial Flutter (AFL) is a rapid beating of the upper chambers, the atria. AFL is characterized by a fast, very regular atrial rate (close to 300 beats a minute). AFL can also lead to pooling of the blood in the atria that can cause an increased risk of blood clot formation and elevated risk for stroke.
        3. Atrial Fibrillation– Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is a common heart rhythm disorder. AF is the chaotic quivering of the upper chambers of the heart, the atria. This quivering reduces the efficiency of the heart and can lead to a rapid heart rate. In addition to heart rate problems, AF causes blood to pool in parts of the atria that increases the risk of forming clots that could lead to a stroke.
        4. Ventricular Tachycardia– Ventricular Tachycardia (VT) is the rapid beating of the two lower chambers of the heart. VT can be a life threatening arrhythmia if not treated.
        5. Premature Ventricular Complexes [PVCs] – frequent drug refractory and symptomatic PVCs [missed beats/ ectopic beats] can be eliminated by catheter ablation.


        Dr. A.M.Karthigesan

        -Senior Consultant Cardiologist & Electrophysiologist

        -Chief, Cardiac Pacing and Arrhythmia Services

        -Department of Cardiac Pacing and Electrophysiology

        -Apollo Hospitals, Greams Road, Chennai.

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